Titanium Dioxide

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a white, inorganic compound commonly used as a white pigment and opacifier in various applications such as supplement, pant and coatings.

Supplement uses

Adverse effects

* We only include human studies in this section. In other words, no animal or in vitro studies.


Studies on Titanium Dioxide & Health risk

Quick summary:  A comprehensive review of the existing literature on the impacts of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) on human health. The review synthesizes the latest findings on the adverse effects and potential health risks of TiO2-NPs exposure, taking into account factors such as size, crystal structure, and photoactivation. 

Findings: Titanium Dioxide causes cell damage. The degree and kind of cellular harm are significantly influenced by the chemical and physical properties of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), encompassing factors such as size, crystal structure, and photoactivation. 

Study reference:Grande, F., & Tucci, P. (2016). Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles: a Risk for Human Health?. Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry16(9), 762–769. https://doi.org/10.2174/1389557516666160321114341

About Titanium Dioxide

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a widely used compound in various industries, including the food and supplement sectors. As an additive, it serves as a colorant, opacifier, and texturizer in many products, including dietary supplements. However, recent studies have raised concerns about the potential health risks associated with TiO2, particularly in its nanoparticle form. This article aims to explore the use of titanium dioxide in supplements and discuss the potential benefits and risks associated with its consumption.

Benifits and concers

The primary benefit of using titanium dioxide in supplements is its ability to improve the product’s visual appeal, making it more attractive to consumers. It can also enhance the stability and shelf life of supplements, ensuring they remain effective and retain their intended properties over time.

Despite its widespread use, concerns have been raised about the safety of titanium dioxide, particularly in its nanoparticle form. Some studies have suggested that TiO2 nanoparticles may cause oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to cell damage and potential adverse effects on human health. These effects have been observed in vitro and in animal studies, but the extent to which they translate to humans remains uncertain.

In response to these concerns, regulatory agencies have revisited their guidelines for titanium dioxide usage in food and supplements. For example, in 2021, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) re-evaluated the safety of TiO2 as a food additive and concluded that it could no longer be considered safe. As a result, the European Commission decided to ban the use of E171 in food products in the EU, starting in 2022. Consumer awareness about TiO2 in supplements has also increased, leading some manufacturers to seek alternative ingredients to maintain their product’s appeal without compromising safety.

The bottom line

Titanium dioxide has been a common ingredient in supplements due to its ability to enhance appearance and product stability. However, recent studies have raised concerns about its safety, particularly in nanoparticle form. As regulatory bodies continue to evaluate the risks and benefits of TiO2, consumers and manufacturers alike should stay informed and consider alternatives when necessary to ensure the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements.